Know what the typical alcohol content is for commercial beers, whiskey, vodka, and gin
Whiskey, vodka, and Gin: 45%
Know what effect the prohibition had after it implemented
It reduced alcohol intake. AKA it worked!
reasons the prohibition was repealed
Alcohol taxes had been a major source of revenue. Concerns that widespread disrespect for prohibition laws encouraged a general sense of lawlessness.
understand the viewpoint of alcohol anonymous toward alcoholism
*alcohol dependence as a progressive disease characterized by loss of control over drinking
*only treatment is abstinence from alcohol
*disease model: alcohol dependence is the primary disease and not the result of another underlying cause
*only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking
understand the severity and progression of the withdrawal syndrome of a person who is alcohol dependent
Abstinence syndrome is medically more severe and more deadly than opioid withdrawal. If untreated mortality can be as high as 1 in 7
-Stages of withdrawal
1: tremors, rapid heartbeat, hypertension, heavy sweating, loss of appetite, insomnia
2: hallucinations (auditory, visual, and/or tactile)
3: delusions, disorientation, delirium
understand the trends in U.S. alcohol consumption
*similar to other drugs, alcohol use peaked in 1981 and then declined
*american consumption per person per year:
beer- (27 gallons or over 1 gallon of alcohol)
spirits- (0.75 gallon of alcohol)
wine- (0.33 gallon of alcohol)
*males more likely to drink than females. males more likely to drink more than females
A measure of a beverage’s alcohol content, twice the percentage of alcohol by weight. Example: 90 proof whiskey is 45% alcohol
having 5 or more drinks on the same occasion. males are more likely to report binge drinking. heaviest drinkers=males
in general, members of the same group. with respect to alcohol, the term refers to other chemicals (alcohols and oils) that are produced in the process of making a particular alcoholic beverage
Understand the relationship between blood alcohol concentration and alcohol intake
if the rate of intake = rate of metabolism, BAC is stable. If rate of intake exceeds rate of metabolism, BAC increases.
Understand the effects smoking has on pregnancy
Increase risk of miscarriage, low birth rate, and SIDS.
Neurological probs, probs with reading and math skills, hyperactivity
Know what carcinogens are in the mother’s blood that also reaches the developing fetus
Nicotine, hydrogen cyanide, and carbon monoxide
Know the trends in current cigarette use
Know the influencing factors of current cigarette use
level of education. high school aged adults are twice as likely to smoke than college students
Know the effects that smoking has world wide
*kills at least 5 million people a year
*tobacco companies have been pushing cigarettes in Asian and developing countries
a whitening and thickening of the mucous tissue in the mouth, considered to be a precancerous tissue change
Understand what second hand smoke is
cigarette smoke inhaled from the environment by nonsmokers.
sidestream: smoke rising from ash of a cigarette
mainstream: smoke inhaled by the smoker
Know what type of cigarette is mainly sold today
Know the physiological effects of nicotine
CNS & circulatory (increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased oxygen need to the heart, shortness of breath)
Reduced hunger (increased blood sugar, deadening of taste buds, and inhibition of hunger contractions)
Releases adrenaline etc,
know what the family smoking prevention and tobacco control act authorized
authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products in specific ways
understand the amount of caffeine content in various forms of coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate
COFFEE: 40-180 mg
understand where and how the caffeine that’s removed from coffee is used
caffeine removed from coffee is used in soft drinks
know the time course of caffeine in humans
30 minutes after indigestion
know the physiological effects of caffeine
*stimulates the CNS and skeletal muscles
*causes sleep disturbances
*constricts blood vessels in the brain which might explain the ability of caffeine to reduce migraine headaches
understand the reproductive effects that caffeine may have
*high consumption of caffeine reduces a woman’s chances of becoming pregnant and slows the growth of the fetus
*research is mixed on whether caffeine increases the risk of miscarriage
identify what high levels of caffeine among college students has been associated with
Associated with lower academic performance
Over the counter ingredient. Works as an Antihistamine. used in Sleep aids, and some cold remedies
know what the dietary supplement health and education act did
expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDA’s regulatory authority over them.
understand what NoDoz is
100 mg of caffeine, recommended dose is two tablets initially, then one every 3 hours. Supposed to help restore mental alertness or wakefulness when experiencing fatigue or drowsiness.
supposed to help memory due to its ability to increase blood circulation to the brain. also a blood thinner, mixed with asprin could be dangerous
Understand the effects of aspirin: adverse or otherwise
can help prevent heart attacks and strokes. blood thinner which can be good and bad… for example when going in for surgery dr makes sure you don’t take aspirin 7-10 days before because of blood thinning. aspirin will induce gastrointestinal bleeding in about 70% of normal subjects. aspirin has been related to accidental poisonings of children as well as with suicide attempts
know what you have to do to get the drug pseudoephedrine containing products
it is now sold behind the counter because it can be used to make meth. stores have to keep info on the buyer for at least 2 years after purchases. don’t need a prescription for it, it is just limited to how often you can buy it
know the difference between over-the-counter drugs and prescription drugs
dosage: an OTC version of a drug may come in smaller doses
chemicals: a prescription drug may contain a chemical not allowed for OTC sale, possibly due to potential toxicity
FDA panels review products and may switch drugs to OTC, such as ibuprofen
know what type of drug Xanax and Ativan are classified as
know what Librium is prescribed for
reduces anxiety without inducing sleep and can be used for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal
understand the recommended ways (drug and non-drug methods) of dealing with insomnia
Non-Drug: maintain a regular sleep schedule. when you get in bed turn off lights and relax. exercise regularly. comfortable sleep environment. watch what you eat/drink before bed. avoid tobacco. don’t lie awake in bed for long periods of time, get up and do something if u cant sleep. don’t nap. avoid chronic use of sleeping pills.
Drug: ambien, barbiturates and benzodiazepines in low doses
Understand the duration of action for abuse and dependence of barbiturates
short acting: onset 15 mins. duration 2-3 hrs
intermediate-acting: onset 30 mins. duration 5-6 hrs
long-acting: onset 1 hour. duration 8+ hours
*short acting drugs are more likely to lead to psychological dependence
when medications are used as sleeping pills they are referred to as hypnotics. aka drugs that induce sleep.
What does “reinforcing the behavior of taking a drug” mean?
when people decide on their own to take a drug to produce a change in the way they feel, the drug’s effect may be seen as reinforcing the behavior of taking the drug.
Understand what methaqualone is and give 2 examples of the drug
found to have sedative properties. Quaalude and Sopor. Now listed as a schedule I drug
a syphilitic infection of the nervous system that causes psychosis. malaria therapy was introduced in the treatment of general paresis and later discovered general antibiotics could cure syphilis.
Know which disorders are classified as anxiety disorders
Panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder
understand what schizophrenia is and how it is different than anxiety disorders
a type of chronic psychosis. psychosis as reflecting a primary disorder of THINKING as opposed to mood or emotion. characterized by two of the following; delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, lack of emotional response.
Side effect of taking an antipsychotic drug. tremors, muscle rigidity, shuffling walk, mask like face.
Identify the cure for schizophrenia
requires life long treatment. can take antipsychotics to help the issues.
most serious complications of drug treatment, means “late appearing abnormal movements” refers to rhythmic, repetitive sucking and smacking movements of the lips, thrusting of the tongue and movements of the arms toes or fingers.
a type of mood disorder also known as manic depressive disorder.
Know what the most common side effects are of antipsychotic medication
some allergic reactions, jaundice, rashes, photosensitivity, agranulocytosis, low white blood cell count, pseudoparkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia. aren’t addictive, hard to commit suicide with them.
What portion of homeless suffer from mental disorders?
Drinking 5 or more cups of coffee per day…
doubles the risk of heart attack
Caffeine works in the brain by
by blocking adenosine receptors
The maximum CNS effect of caffeine is reached about _____ after drinking coffee.
In 1909, the FDA seized some Coca-Cola syrup and filed charges against the company partly because
the syrup contained caffeine
According to current FDA rules on “cola” drinks
they can’t contain more than 6 mg caffeine per OZ
Most regular brewed teas have about how much caffeine per cup?
The world’s greatest per-capita consumers of tea are found in
_____________ is prescribed to asthma sufferers because it relaxes bronchial passages.
In 1970, Americans drank more coffee than any other nonalcoholic beverage product. By 2009,
americans drink twice as much soft drinks compared to coffee
The largest exporters of coffee to the U.S. are
columbia, brazil, guatamala, mexico
The usual recreational dose of GHB when taken alone is about
The CNS depressants include various prescription drugs referred to as
Inhalant use has traditionally been more common among
poor hispanic and native american youth
What has kept paraldehyde from being widely used?
bad taste and odor
Among the barbiturates, when prescribing a sleeping pill (hypnotic), physicians would usually choose a
higher dose of a short acting drug
Withdrawal from long-term use of sedative-hypnotic drugs is characterized by
anxiety, insomnia, nausea, seizures
Sedative-hypnotic agents bind to which receptors in the brain?
Zolpidem (Ambien) is
not a benzodiazepine chemically, but it has similar effects.
The major advantage of the benzodiazepines over the barbiturates seems to be the
greater safety margin
The fastest, and probably the most effective, treatment for severe cases of depression is
What is the average lag period for antidepressants to begin to be effective?
The FDA now requires a printed warning on several selective reuptake inhibitors because they increase the risk of
suicide in children and adolesents
The antipsychotic drugs that have been marketed in the past ten years, such as Zyprexa (olanzepine), are referred to as
T/F about half of all murderers and about half of all homocide victims had been drinking
At a BAC of 0.08, the relative risk of being involved in a fatal automobile crash is about
3X’s greater than a sober driver
In a typical person, intoxication to the point of staggering and greatly impaired sensory perception occurs at about what BAC?
T/F carbonated liquids speeds up the absorption of alcohol?
Total per-capita consumption of alcohol
has declined from its peak in 1981
Although national prohibition of alcohol did reduce alcohol-related deaths and hospitalizations, it was repealed partly because of the growth of organized crime and partly because
of a desire to reduce income tax
In most commercial beers sold in the U.S., the alcohol content is about
Suppose you have a cold and you choose to take Tylenol Cold to treat your symptoms (runny nose, congested nasal passages, and fever). Which of these ingredients in this OTC product is unnecessary?
There has been some reported abuse by young people of products containing _________, which they take in high doses to produce visual and auditory hallucinations